The Birth-Based Caste System in Vedas
📖Manusmriti Verse 8.272
If through arrogance, he teaches brāhmaṇas their duty, the king shall pour heated oil into his mouth and ears.
📖Manusmriti Verse 8.380
Verily he shall not kill the Brāhmaṇa, even though he be steeped in all crimes; he should banish him from the kingdom, with all his property and unhurt.
If a brahmin commits any kind of crime, he should not be killed.
📖Manusmriti Verse 12.55
He who kills a Brāhmaṇa enters the womb of a dog, a pig, an ass, a camel, a cow, a goat, a sheep, a deer or a bird, or that of a Caṇḍāla or a Pukkasa.
You should respect brahmin according to hindu religion, if someone kills a brahmin then his punishment is mentioned in this verse.
Manusmriti Verse 3.17
Having placed a Śūdrā woman on his bed, the Brāhmaṇa goes to perdition; and having begotten a son by her, he falls from Brāhmaṇahood itself.
Manusmriti Verse 8.270
If a once-born person insults a twice-born one with gross abuse, he should suffer the cutting off of his tongue; as he is of low origin.
Manusmriti Verse 5.103
One should not have a dead Brāhmaṇa carried by a Śūdra, while his own people are there. For it would be an oblation into fire, defiled by the touch of the Śūdra, and as such not conducive to heaven.
Manusmriti Verse 8.417
The Brāhmaṇa may confidently have recourse to seizing the goods of the Śūdra; as the latter has no property, and his property is meant to be seized by the master.
- Caste system in Hinduism
- Verse 8.270 & Verse 5.103 Explain, Once-born person’—the Śūdra; if he ‘insults’—abuses—the higher castes—‘with gross abuse’—harsh words attributing heinous offences,—suffers ‘the cutting off of the tongue. Verse 5.103 While his own people are there’—i.e., men of the same caste. The use of the term ‘oblation into fire’ implies that the body should not also be burnt by the Śūdra, Many other verses related to the caste system in Hinduism are also mentioned in their different holy books.
📖Rig Veda 10.90.12
His mouth became the Brāhmaṇa, his arms became the Rājanya, his thighs became the Vaiśya;the Śūdra was born from his feet.
📖Brahma Purana 106.121
There is a hell named Guḍapāka. It is full of boiling eddies of treacle and molasses. A man responsible for mixture in castes is thrown into it. He is burnt therein.
If he mentions the name and caste of these men with scorn, a burning iron nail ten inches long shall be thrust into his mouth.
- Comparative notes by various authors : If a low-born man revilingly mentions the name or caste of a superior,—an iron pin, ten inches long, shall be thrust into his mouth.
Caste system in Hinduism is birth based and not based on the profession acquired by the individual.
️️📖Mahabharata 13.143.6 – The illustrious one said, ‘The status of a Brahmana, O goddess, is exceedingly difficult to attain. O auspicious lady, one becomes a Brahmana through original creation or birth. After the same manner the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra, all become so through original creation.
️️📖Shiva Purana, Uma Samhita 44.13
O excellent sage, birth as a man is very difficult to obtain; especially that as a brahmin. Even there the state of an ascetic is very rarely achieved.
📖Shiv Puran Book 5 – Avantya-khaṇḍa Section 3 Chapter 122 Verse 14
A separate duty has not been assigned by Parameṣṭhin to the Śūdra. He need not have any Mantra, consecration or pursuit of lores. He need not have any conventional study of the science of words (i.e. Grammar) and special worship of deities. He has to be, day and night, in the same state as at birth.
Serving the upper castes is the duty of Shudras
📖Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 18, Verse 44: Agriculture, dairy farming, and commerce are the natural works for those with the qualities of Vaishyas. Serving through work is the natural duty for those with the qualities of Shudras.
The following are the duties declared for a Sudra from the olden times. He should serve the Brahmanas and submit to them; should not study; sacrifices are forbidden to him; he should be diligent and be constantly enterprising in doing all that is for his good. The king protects all these with (proper) care, and sets all the castes to perform their respective duties. He should not be given to sensual enjoyments. He should be impartial, and treat all his subjects on an equal footing.
- According to the caste system, there are four main castes, or varnas: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras. These castes are further divided into subcastes, or jatis. The Brahmins are the highest caste, and they are traditionally priests, scholars, and teachers. The Kshatriyas are the warrior caste and are traditionally rulers and politicians. The Vaishyas are the merchant caste, and the Sudras are the laboring caste. In the traditional caste system of Hinduism, a person’s caste is determined by their birth. This means that a person is born into a particular caste and is expected to follow the customs and traditions associated with that caste throughout their life.
- Reference Manusmriti Verse 8.272
- Reference Manusmriti Verse 8.380
- Reference Manusmriti Verse 12.55
- Reference Manusmriti Verse 3.17
- Reference Manusmriti Verse 8.270
- Reference Manusmriti Verse 5.103
- Reference Manusmriti Verse 8.417
- Reference Rig Veda 10.90.12
- Reference Brahma Purana 106.121
- Reference Manusmriti 8.271
- Reference : Mahabharata 13.143.6
- Reference : Shiva Purana, Uma Samhita 44.13
- Reference : Shiv Puran Book 5 – Avantya-khaṇḍa Section 3 Chapter 122 Verse 14
- Reference : Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 18, Verse 44
- Reference : Mahabharata 5.29.26