Battle has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah knows, while you know not.
And what is [the matter] with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah and [for] the oppressed among men, women, and children who say, “Our Lord, take us out of this city of oppressive people and appoint for us from Yourself a protector and appoint for us from Yourself a helper?
Indeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due and when you judge between people to judge with justice. Excellent is that which Allah instructs you. Indeed, Allah is ever Hearing and Seeing.
Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors.
They do not observe toward a believer any pact of kinship or covenant of protection. And it is they who are the transgressors. But if they repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, then they are your brothers in religion; and We detail the verses for a people who know. And if they break their oaths after their treaty and defame your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelief, for indeed, there are no oaths [sacred] to them; [fight them that] they might cease.
Would you not fight a people who broke their oaths and determined to expel the Messenger, and they had begun [the attack upon] you the first time? Do you fear them? But Allah has more right that you should fear Him, if you are [truly] believers.
That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood, and those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus does Allah present to the people their comparisons.
And if they incline to peace, then incline to it [also] and rely upon Allah . Indeed, it is He who is the Hearing, the Knowing.
Permission [to fight] has been given to those who are being fought, because they were wronged. And indeed, Allah is competent to give them victory.
So when you meet those who disbelieve [in battle], strike [their] necks until, when you have inflicted slaughter upon them, then secure their bonds, and either [confer] favor afterwards or ransom [them] until the war lays down its burdens. That [is the command]. And if Allah had willed, He could have taken vengeance upon them [Himself], but [He ordered armed struggle] to test some of you by means of others. And those who are killed in the cause of Allah – never will He waste their deeds. He will guide them and amend their condition, And admit them to Paradise, which He has made known to them.
Indeed, those who disbelieve in Our verses – We will drive them into a Fire. Every time their skins are roasted through We will replace them with other skins so they may taste the punishment. Indeed, Allah is ever Exalted in Might and Wise.
They wish you would disbelieve as they disbelieved so you would be alike. So do not take from among them allies until they emigrate for the cause of Allah . But if they turn away, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them and take not from among them any ally or helper.
And when you travel throughout the land, there is no blame upon you for shortening the prayer, [especially] if you fear that those who disbelieve may disrupt [or attack] you. Indeed, the disbelievers are ever to you a clear enemy.
O Prophet, urge the believers to battle. If there are among you twenty [who are] steadfast, they will overcome two hundred. And if there are among you one hundred [who are] steadfast, they will overcome a thousand of those who have disbelieved because they are a people who do not understand.
So consume what you have taken of war booty [as being] lawful and good, and fear Allah . Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
Fight them; Allah will punish them by your hands and will disgrace them and give you victory over them and satisfy the breasts of a believing people.
So, when the sacred months expire, kill the Mushriks wherever you find them, and catch them and besiege them and sit in ambush for them everywhere. Then, if they repent and establish Salāh and pay Zakāh, leave their way. Surely, Allah is most Forgiving, Very-Merciful.
- The context of this verse (Quran 9:5) is related to the declaration of war against the pagan tribes of Arabia who had violated their peace treaty ( Quran 9:1-4) with the Muslims. These tribes had repeatedly attacked and plotted against the Muslims, and despite being warned and given a chance to repent, they continued to pose a threat to the Muslim community. The verse instructs the Muslims to fight and kill these pagan tribes until they either embrace Islam or pay Jizyah (tax) as a sign of submission to the Islamic authority. However, if they repent and embrace Islam, they should be left alone and allowed to live peacefully among the Muslim community.
O you who have believed, fight those adjacent to you of the disbelievers and let them find in you harshness. And know that Allah is with the righteous.
O Prophet, strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them. And their refuge is Hell, and wretched is the destination.
Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight you, and do not transgress. Verily, Allah does not like the transgressors, Kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from where they drove you out, as Fitnah (to create disorder) is more severe than killing. However, do not fight them near Al-Masjid-ul-Harām (the Sacred Mosque in Makkah) unless they fight you there. However, if they fight you (there) you may kill them. Such is the reward of the disbelievers. But if they desist, then indeed, Allah is Most-Forgiving, Very- Merciful, Fight them until there is no Fitnah any more, and obedience remains for Allah. But, if they desist, then aggression is not allowed except against the transgressors, The holy month for the holy month, and the sanctities are subject to retribution. So when anyone commits aggression against you, be aggressive against him in the like manner as he did against you, and fear Allah, and be sure that Allah is with the God-fearing, Quran 2:195 And Spend in the way of Allah and do not put yourselves into destruction, and do good. Of course, Allah loves those who do good.
- The verses emphasize that Muslims should fight only in self-defense and not transgress the limits set by Allah. They are also instructed to spare innocent people, including women and children, and to not fight in the vicinity of the Sacred Mosque in Mecca unless attacked there. The believers are encouraged to fight until the persecution ends and religious freedom is established. If the enemies stop their aggression, then the believers should also cease fighting. verse 195 advises the believers to spend in the way of Allah and do good deeds, emphasizing the importance of kindness and charity even during times of conflict. Overall, these verses establish the principles of just warfare in Islam and emphasize the importance of self-defense and protection of the innocent.
Except for those who take refuge with a people between yourselves and whom is a treaty or those who come to you, their hearts strained at [the prospect of] fighting you or fighting their own people. And if Allah had willed, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they remove themselves from you and do not fight you and offer you peace, then Allah has not made for you a cause [for fighting] against them.
- The verse states that those who seek refuge with a people who have a treaty with Muslims, or who come to Muslims with the intention of seeking peace, should be granted safety and protection. This applies to those whose hearts are inclined towards peace and who do not want to fight against Muslims or their own people. The verse also emphasizes that Allah has the power to give those seeking refuge power over Muslims if He so willed, but He has not made it a cause for Muslims to fight against them. Therefore, if these individuals offer peace and do not fight against Muslims, there is no cause for Muslims to fight against them. Overall, the verse promotes peaceful coexistence and the protection of those seeking refuge, while also emphasizing that Muslims should be prepared to defend themselves if necessary.
And if any one of the Mushriks seeks your protection, give him protection until he listens to the Word of Allah, then let him reach his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know.
Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.
How can the Mushriks have a treaty with Allah and His Messenger? Except those with whom you made a treaty near Al-Masjid-ul-Harām . Then, as long as they remain straight with you, you too remain straight with them. Surely, Allah loves the God-fearing.
- It’s important to read a Quranic verse in its context whenever you come across it. Critics often quote only the parts that support their views, without considering the preceding and subsequent verses. When the passage is examined in context, it becomes clear that nowhere does it endorse the killing of innocent people. From verses 2:190 to 2:195, Allah makes it evident that Muslims are only allowed to fight those who fight them, that is, they may fight in self-defence. Another tactic employed by some critics is to manipulate the meanings of Arabic words. For example, they deceptively translate the Arabic word ‘Fitna’ used in verses 2:191 and 2:193 as ‘disbelief’. This makes it seem like the passage is encouraging Muslims to fight those who are disbelievers simply because of their religion. However, this interpretation is false. In fact, the word ‘Fitnah’ means ‘persecution’, ‘corruption’, or ‘sedition’. When this word is used in verses 2:191 and 2:193, it specifically means ‘persecution’.
Examining Quran 9:29 – Does Islam Sanction The Killing Of People of the Scriptures
Fight those who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day, nor comply with what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden, nor embrace the religion of truth from among those who were given the Scripture,1 until they pay the tax,2 willingly submitting, fully humbled.
Footnote 1 : among those who were given the Scripture
To fully understand this verse we need to bear in mind that Quranic verses are of two types. General verses talk about belief in Allah, good manners, and acts of worship. Specific verses, such as this verse, were revealed in regards to particular situations. This sûrah came at a time when the pagans of Arabia (and their allies) repeatedly violated treaties they had signed with the Prophet (ﷺ). Muslims had to fight for the survival of their newly established state in Medina. So this verse discusses dealing with those who violated their agreements and attacked the Muslims. Offenders were fought, unless they stopped their aggression. If they chose not to accept Islam, they were obligated to pay Jizya-tax.
Footnote 2 : Pay Tex
Taxation systems have existed since ancient times. There are several references in the Old Testament (e.g., Ezra 4:20). In the New Testament, Jesus allows paying taxes to Caesar (Luke 20:25, Matthew 17:24–27, Matthew 22:21). Under Islamic rule, all individuals had financial obligations—Muslims paid zakâh (2.5% of their savings) and non-Muslims (ⱬimmîs) were required to pay jizyah (tax for protection from foreign enemies). The jizyah was an average of one dinar (4.25 g of gold) annually. Women, children, the elderly, the clergy, the poor, and those who were unable to work were exempt. Those who opted to join the army were also exempt. Poor ⱬimmîs were supported financially by the state. Muslim rulers refunded the jizyah if they failed to protect their non-Muslim subjects.
Discussing this verses out of context is like saying that the Bible calls for genocide
✝️1 Samuel 15:2-3
This is what the LORD Almighty says: ‘I will punish the Amalekites for what they did to Israel when they waylaid them as they came up from Egypt. Now go, attack the Amalekites and totally destroy all that belongs to them. Do not spare them; put to death men and women, children and infants, cattle and sheep, camels and donkeys.
Islam forbids killings of innocent people
Whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption [done] in the land – it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one – it is as if he had saved mankind entirely. And our messengers had certainly come to them with clear proofs. Then indeed many of them, [even] after that, throughout the land, were transgressors.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Come! Let me recite to you what your Lord has forbidden to you: do not associate others with Him ˹in worship˺. ˹Do not fail to˺ honour your parents. Do not kill your children for fear of poverty. We provide for you and for them. Do not come near indecencies, openly or secretly. Do not take a ˹human˺ life—made sacred by Allah—except with ˹legal˺ right. (For example, in retaliation for intentional killing through legal channels.) This is what He has commanded you, so perhaps you will understand.
But whoever kills a believer intentionally – his recompense is Hell, wherein he will abide eternally, and Allah has become angry with him and has cursed him and has prepared for him a great punishment.
And those who do not invoke with Allah another deity or kill the soul which Allah has forbidden [to be killed], except by right, and do not commit unlawful sexual intercourse. And whoever should do that will meet a penalty, Multiplied for him is the punishment on the Day of Resurrection, and he will abide therein humiliated.
📖Sahih al-Bukhari 2653
The Prophet (ﷺ) was asked about the great sins He said, “They are:–
(1 ) To join others in worship with Allah,
(2) To be undutiful to one’s parents.
(3) To kill a person (which Allah has forbidden to kill) (i.e. to commit the crime of murdering).
(4) And to give a false witness.