📖Sahih al-Bukhari 3166
Narrated`Abdullah bin `Amr: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Whoever killed a person having a treaty with the Muslims, shall not smell the smell of Paradise though its smell is perceived from a distance of forty years.”
- This hadith is referring to anyone who kills a person with whom the Muslims have a treaty, whether that person is Muslim or non-Muslim. This is because Islam considers the lives of all human beings to be sacred and valuable, regardless of their religion or ethnicity. Therefore, killing a person who is under the protection of a treaty with the Muslims is a serious offense that goes against the principles of justice and peace in Islam. In the context of this hadith, a treaty refers to a formal agreement or covenant made between the Muslims and another group or individual, usually for the purpose of ensuring peace and security between them. The treaty may cover various aspects such as political, economic, or social relations, and it often includes provisions for mutual respect, protection, and cooperation. For example, during the time of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), he made several treaties with different tribes and communities in the Arabian Peninsula, including the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah with the Meccans. These treaties played a crucial role in establishing peace and stability in the region and promoting good relations between different groups.
Therefore, violating a treaty is a serious offense in Islam, as it undermines the trust and goodwill that are essential for maintaining peaceful relations between different communities.