Punishment of Pratiloma intercaste marriage in Hinduism

Punishments of Pratiloma intercaste marriage in Hinduism

To know about the Intercaste honor killings in India you need to know about Pratiloma and Anuloma marriages in Hinduism

  1. Pratiloma marriage in Hinduism : When a low caste man marry a woman of higher caste than himself. Prohibited and punished with death.
  2. Anuloma marriage : When a High caste man marry a woman of caste lower than himself. Allowed but usually recommended only for sexual satisfaction

📖Gautama Dharma sutra 23.14-15
If a woman has sex with a low-caste man, the king should have her publicly devoured by dogs and have the man executed.

📖Vasistha Dharmasutra 21.1-5
If a Śūdra approaches a female of the Brāhmaṇa caste, the King shall cause him to be tied up in Vīraṇa grass and thrown into fire. Of the woman, he shall have the hair shaved and the body anointed with butter; then placing her naked on a donkey, he shall cause her to be conducted along the public road; it is declared that by this she becomes purified. If a Vaiśya approaches a female of the Brāhmaṇa caste, the King shall have him tied up in Lohita grass and thrown into fire;—[the woman is to be dealt with as above]. If a Kṣatriya approaches a female of the Brāhmaṇa caste, the King shall have him tied up in the leaves of Śara grass and thrown into fire; [the woman is to be dealt with as above], A Vaiśya offending with a Kṣatriya woman shall be dealt with in the same manner; so also a Śūdra offending with a Vaiśva or Ksatriya woman’

📖Matsya purana 227.132
If a low caste man wants to marry a high caste girl and does so would be punished with death; similarly If a high woman wishes to marry a lower caste man, she should be punished with death.

📖Manusmriti 8.377-378
The Brāhmaṇa who has intercourse with a protected Brāhmaṇa woman by force should be fined one thousand; he who has connection with a willing one, should be fined five hundred But both these (kshatriya and vaishya caste), when offending against a protected Brāhmaṇa woman, should be punished like a Śūdra, or burnt in a fire of dry grass.

📖Gautama Dharmasutra 12.2
If a Śūdra has intercourse with an Ārya woman, his organ shall he cut off, and all his property shall be confiscated.

📖Baudhayana Dharmasutra 2.2.3.52
Let him burn in straw-fire a Śūdra who has intercourse with an Ārya woman.

📖Manu Smriti 8.374
For having sexually visited a woman of any twice-born caste, whether protected or unprotected by her husband, a S’udra shall be punished with the mutilation of his reproductive organ and a confiscation of all his goods and estates in the first named instance.

📖Apastamba Dharmasutra 2.27.9
‘A Śūdra committing adultery with a woman of any of the three higher castes shall suffer capital punishment.

  1. Reference : Gautama Dharma sutra 23.14-15 
    Reference : Vasistha Dharmasutra 21.1-5
  2. Reference : Matsya purana 227.132 
  3. Reference :  Manusmriti 8.377-378 
  4. Reference : Gautama Dharmasutra 12.2 
  5. Reference : Baudhayana Dharmasutra 2.2.3.52 
    Reference : Manu Smriti 8.374