[This is a declaration of] disassociation, from Allah and His Messenger, to those with whom you had made a treaty among the polytheists.
- This is the beginning of the chapter. There is a treaty between the Muslims and non-Muslims, but they didn’t fulfill it; rather, they started fighting with the Muslims after the treaty.
So travel freely, [O disbelievers], throughout the land [during] four months but know that you cannot cause failure to Allah and that Allah will disgrace the disbelievers.
- Then a command comes to allow them four months to repent or leave the land because if they continue to do their evil, there will be no escape for them.
And [it is] an announcement from Allah and His Messenger to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage that Allah is disassociated from the disbelievers, and [so is] His Messenger. So if you repent, that is best for you; but if you turn away – then know that you will not cause failure to Allah . And give tidings to those who disbelieve of a painful punishment.
- They have not fulfilled the peace treaty, so they have been warned to repent within four months, otherwise, Muslims will take action against them.
Excepted are those with whom you made a treaty among the polytheists and then they have not been deficient toward you in anything or supported anyone against you; so complete for them their treaty until their term [has ended]. Indeed, Allah loves the righteous [who fear Him].
- In this verse, it is mentioned that there will be no fighting against the polytheists who did not fight with Muslims, yet still wish to uphold the treaty they made with Muslims.
And when the sacred months have passed, then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them [go] on their way. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
- In this verse, the prescribed punishment for the polytheists who breached the treaty is established. Despite the four-month grace period granted to them for repentance, they persisted in combat, leading to the enforcement of the stated consequences. While warfare typically entails eliminating the adversary, the polytheists were offered an opportunity to embrace Islam, engage in prayer, and provide alms, granting them freedom. However, such provisions are not applicable in contemporary international law during times of conflict. The phrase “But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them [go] on their way” signifies that if polytheists who have been captured by Muslims embrace Islam, practice prayer, and contribute to charitable causes, they should not be penalized due to their repentance. Nevertheless, in the modern era, this regulation is absent, and it is improbable that an enemy would be released even after embracing the captor’s faith and demonstrating remorse. It is crucial to highlight that Islam prohibits coerced conversions. If an individual, who previously did not believe in one God and engaged in wrongful acts, fights against Muslims, and subsequently converts to Islam upon capture, behaving virtuously, it is impermissible to administer punishment.
And if any one of the polytheists seeks your protection, then grant him protection so that he may hear the words of Allah . Then deliver him to his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know.
- In this verse, if an enemy seeks refuge, it becomes imperative for a Muslim to convey the message of God and ensure their safety, providing protection from harm. These principles diverge from the modern laws governing our world, which often lack such compassion. Current governmental regulations fail to provide this level of sanctuary, leading to wars where even women and children become victims.
These verses was revealed during the time of Prophet Muhammad, yet it remains applicable today. However, the timeframe mentioned in Qur’an 9:5 depends on the situation, as the verse was specifically revealed for that period. So, in the present time, if anyone initiates a fight with Muslims, they can be given a different timeframe to stop the violence. If the enemy refuses to cease the violence, Muslims have the right to fight back. This represents a just law during war, and we can find similar laws in our contemporary world, based on each country’s constitution.
Prohibition of Fighting Without Just Cause with Non-Muslims
Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.
Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors.
- In Islam, it is not permissible to initiate fighting with non-Muslims unless they have initiated hostilities. However, it is permissible to engage in self-defense if they provoke or attack Muslims first.
We believe in a holistic approach to understanding the Qur’an. Our article delves into the comprehensive context of Qur’an verse 9:5 within its chapter. Rather than isolating one verse from a hundred, we emphasize the significance of reading the Qur’an within its complete context. If you have any questions or feedback, we welcome you to connect with us through email. Your contributions are invaluable to us, and we appreciate any insights that can enhance the accuracy and depth of our articles.