Quran Preservation – Historical Evidence
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The Quran is the holy scripture of Islam and is considered by Muslims to be the word of God as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad over a period of 23 years. Muslims believe that the Quran was not written by any human being, but rather was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel. The Prophet Muhammad, in turn, conveyed the message of the Quran to his companions, who memorized and wrote it down.
Prophet Muhammad (S) was the first person to memorized the Quran
Prophet Muhammad (S) is known for being the first Hafiz or memorizer of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. He received the revelations of the Quran from Allah through the angel Gabriel and committed them to memory. This memorization was an important aspect of preserving the Quran, as it was primarily transmitted orally during the early years of Islam. Prophet Muhammad (S) also encouraged his followers to memorize the Quran, and many of his companions became Hafizs as well. The practice of memorizing the Quran continues to be an important tradition in Islamic education today, and many Muslims strive to memorize the entire text of the Quran.
📖Sahih al-Bukhari 4998 : Narrated Abu-Huraira: Gabriel used to repeat the recitation of the Qur’an with the Prophet (ﷺ) once a year, but he repeated it twice with him in the year he died. The Prophet (ﷺ) used to stay in I`tikaf for ten days every year (in the month of Ramadan), but in the year of his death, he stayed in I`tikaf for twenty days.
- It’s important to note that Prophet Muhammad (S) was not just a memorizer, but also a great teacher, leader, and example for all Muslims. He spread the message of Islam, established the first Islamic state in Medina, and demonstrated the values of compassion, justice, and humility. His legacy extends far beyond his role as the first memorizer of the Quran.
Related : The Quran is the word of Allah – Heavenly Quran
The process of collecting the Quran into a single
During the time of Prophet Muhammad, the Quran was not compiled into a single, written text as we know it today. Rather, the Quran was primarily transmitted orally, with the Prophet reciting the verses to his companions, who in turn memorized and recited them to others. However, there were written records of the Quran during the time of the Prophet. These records included portions of the Quran written on various materials such as leather, bone, and tree bark. Additionally, some of the companions of the Prophet who were literate wrote down portions of the Quran for their own personal use. However, these written records were not widely circulated and were not compiled into a single, authoritative text during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad. It was only after the death of the Prophet that the process of compiling the Quran into a single, written text began. This task was undertaken by a group of the Prophet’s companions who were known for their knowledge of the Quran and its recitation, led by the first caliph of Islam, Abu Bakr. They collected various written and oral versions of the Quran and compiled them into a single text, which was then distributed throughout the Muslim community. So, while there were written records of the Quran during the time of the Prophet, it was primarily transmitted orally and was not compiled into a single, written text until after his death.
Here are some references to support the information I provided:
- “The Qur’an and Its Prophet: The Text and the Historical Context,” by Andrew Rippin, in The Cambridge Companion to the Qur’an, edited by Jane McAuliffe (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
- “The Transmission of the Qur’an,” by Mustafa Shah, in The Oxford Handbook of Qur’anic Studies, edited by Roberto Tottoli (Oxford University Press, 2019).
- “The Compilation of the Qur’an,” by Angelika Neuwirth, in The Cambridge Companion to the Qur’an, edited by Jane McAuliffe (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
Here are some references to Hadith literature that discuss the role of the Prophet Muhammad in transmitting the Quran orally:
- Sahih al-Bukhari 4992 : This Hadith narrates the story of how the Prophet Muhammad used to receive the revelations of the Quran from Angel Gabriel and then recite them to his companions.
- Sunan Ibn Majah, Book 5, Hadith 1283: This Hadith relates the story of how the Prophet Muhammad taught his companions the correct pronunciation and recitation of the Quran, and how they would recite it back to him to ensure their accuracy.
These Hadiths are just a few examples of the many that describe the Prophet Muhammad’s role in transmitting the Quran orally to his companions, who in turn memorized and transmitted it to others. They provide valuable insights into the historical context and the methods used to transmit and preserve the Quran.
Prophet’s Quranic Writing Instructions
- Sunan Abi Dawud 3646 : In this Hadith narrated by Abdullah bin ‘Amr, he said: “I used to write everything I heard from the Prophet (peace be upon him) in order to memorize it. The Quraysh prohibited me from doing that, and the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, ‘Write it down, for by the One in Whose hand my soul is, nothing comes from me but the truth.
- Sahih Muslim 3004 : in this Hadith Abu Sa’id Khudri reported that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, ‘Do not write anything from me except the Quran. Whoever has written something other than that should erase it.
Reciting Verse Differently
- Sahih al-Bukhari 3476 : Ibn Mas`ud heard someone reciting a Quranic verse differently from how the Prophet (ﷺ) recited it. He took the matter to the Prophet (ﷺ), but the Prophet (ﷺ) showed disapproval and said that both ways of recitation were correct, and that disagreements among previous nations led to their destruction.
Memorization of the Quran during the Time of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)
📖Sahih al-Bukhari 5049, it is narrated that the Prophet Muhammad asked his companion, Abdullah, to recite the Quran to him. Abdullah was surprised and asked if he should recite the Quran to the Prophet, who had already received it. The Prophet replied that he wanted to hear it from someone else.
- This hadith shows the importance of reciting and listening to the Quran, even for those who have already memorized it. The Prophet (ﷺ) demonstrated the value of hearing the Quran from others, which emphasizes the importance of learning and teaching the Quran. The Prophet’s request also shows his humility and eagerness to seek knowledge and listen to the words of Allah, regardless of the source.
📖Sahih al-Bukhari 5037 : Narrated Aisha:
The Prophet (ﷺ) heard a man reciting the Qur’an in the mosque and said, “May Allah bestow His Mercy on him, as he has reminded me of such-and-such Verses of such a Surah.
- The meaning of this hadith is that during the time of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), people had already learned how to recite the Quran and were using it in their prayers.
The Oral Transmission of the Quran During the Time of the Prophet Muhammad, with Some Written Records
Here are some references to Hadith literature that discuss the oral transmission of the Quran during the time of the Prophet Muhammad:
- Sahih al-Bukhari 4986 : This Hadith narrates the story of a group of companions who wrote down some verses of the Quran on a piece of parchment during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad.
- Sahih al-Bukhari 4990 : This Hadith describes how the companions of the Prophet Muhammad used to write down the Quranic verses as they were being revealed to the Prophet.
- Sahih al-Bukhari 4986 : This hadith narrates the story how the Quran was written down on a palm-leaf stalk.
- These Hadiths, along with others, provide evidence that some of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad did write down portions of the Quran on various materials. However, it is important to note that these written records were not the primary means of transmission, and the Quran was primarily transmitted orally and memorized by the companions. The process of compiling the Quran into a single, written text did not take place until after the death of the Prophet Muhammad.
Recommended Qur’an Teachers by Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)
📖Sahih al-Bukhari 4999 : Narrated Masriq: `Abdullah bin `Amr mentioned `Abdullah bin Masud and said, “I shall ever love that man, for I heard the Prophet (ﷺ) saying, ‘Take (learn) the Qur’an from four: `Abdullah bin Masud, Salim, Mu`adh and Ubai bin Ka`b.
The Quran was present during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad
Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah:
“I saw the Messenger of Allah during his Hajj, on the Day of ‘Arafah. He was upon his camel Al-Qaswa, giving a sermon, so he said: ‘O people! Indeed, I have left among you, that which if you hold fast to it, you shall not go astray: The Book of Allah and my family, the people of my house.
- The Book of Allah (referring to the Quran) was present during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad, and it was highly regarded and emphasized by him as a source of guidance for Muslims. In the hadith you mentioned, the Prophet Muhammad is emphasizing the importance of holding fast to both the Quran and his family (the people of his household) as a means of staying on the right path and avoiding going astray.
Many Quran memorizers (Qurra) existed during the Prophet’s lifetime and beyond
This narration from Sahih al-Bukhari 4679 describes how Abu Bakr and Umar asked Zaid bin Thabit to collect Quranic material from various sources and compile it into a manuscript. Zaid initially hesitated, but he eventually undertook the task and collected Quranic material from many sources, including his own memory and many memories of others who had memorized the Quran. The compiled manuscript was kept by Abu Bakr, Umar, and Hafsa.
The Manuscripts with Hafsa: Primary Source for Compilation of the Quran
The Misconception about `Uthman’s Order to Burn Manuscripts of the Quran
Uthman did not burn the Quran. On the contrary, Uthman was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and one of the early Muslims who worked to preserve the Quran. During the time of Uthman’s caliphate, there were different dialects of Arabic being used in different regions, which led to some variations in the recitation of the Quran. To ensure the uniformity and consistency of the Quran, Uthman ordered that a standard version of the Quran be compiled, based on the dialect of the Quraysh, the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).`Uthman appointed a committee of companions to oversee the compilation of the Quran. They used the manuscripts that had been compiled during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and verified their authenticity through the testimony of the companions who had memorized the Quran during the Prophet’s lifetime. Once the standard version of the Quran was compiled, `Uthman ordered that multiple copies be made and sent to various regions of the Muslim world. He also ordered that any other manuscripts or copies of the Quran that were not in line with the standard version be burnt. This was done to prevent any confusion or discrepancies in the recitation of the Quran. So, it’s important to note that `Uthman did not burn the Quran but rather ordered the burning of any manuscripts or copies that did not conform to the standard version that was compiled and verified during his time.
Are the Quranic verses on stoning (rajm) missing?
The term “rajm verse” refers to a verse in Islamic scripture, specifically in the Quran, that mentions the punishment of stoning (rajm in Arabic) for those who commit adultery. The rajm verse is found in Surah al-Nur (The Light), which is the 24th chapter of the Quran. The verse in question is verse 2, which in English translation reads:
“The [unmarried] woman or [unmarried] man found guilty of sexual intercourse – lash each one of them with a hundred lashes, and do not be taken by pity for them in the religion of Allah, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. And let a group of the believers witness their punishment.
- The word “rajm” comes from the Arabic root word “rjm” which means “to throw stones”. The punishment of stoning.
It is important to note that while this verse mentions the punishment of lashing for unmarried individuals who commit sexual intercourse, the punishment of stoning for adultery is derived from a combination of hadiths (narrations about the teachings and actions of the Prophet Muhammad) and the consensus of Islamic jurists throughout history. The exact method and conditions for the punishment of adultery are subject to interpretation and debate among Islamic scholars.